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May 2020

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Glucosamine, Chondroitin, MSM, Cartilage

 Glucosamine, Chondroitin, MSM, Cartilage

Joint health: 
Glucosamine, Chondroitin, MSM and shark cartilage.
Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar that acts prominently as a precursor of biochemical synthesis in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids. Glucosamine is found mainly in the exoskeleton of crustaceans and other arthropods, in fungi and in many other organisms, being the most abundant monosaccharide. It is commercially synthesized by hydrolysis of crustacean exoskeletons. Glucosamine is also used quite commonly in the treatment of arthritis and arthrosis, despite the fact that its acceptance as a therapeutic medicine is variable (crossfit). 
Glucosamine was first identified in 1876 by Dr. Georg Ledderhose, but its stereochemistry was not fully defined until 1939 by the work of Walter Norman Haworth. D-glucosamine is naturally made in the form of glucosamine-6-phosphate, and is a precursor to all sugar-containing nitrogenous compounds. Specifically, glucosamine-6-phosphate is synthesized from fructose-6-phosphate and glutamine as the first step in the biosynthetic pathway of hexosamines. The end product of this route is UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), which is used in the production of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and glycolipids.
Oral glucosamine is used in the treatment of arthritis and osteoarthritis. As glucosamine is the precursor of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, it can be said that they favor the development of cartilage tissues. Glucosamine served as a dietary supplement is also used in cartilage reconstruction.
Its use in osteoarthritis is apparently safe, as shown by the results obtained so far in various clinical trials.
Since arthritis and osteoarthritis are autoimmune diseases in which glucosamine has demonstrated its beneficial effect, its immunomodulatory effect is being tested in other autoimmune diseases, such as in the animal model of multiple sclerosis.
Glucosamine can decrease the effectiveness of certain drugs used in the treatment of diabetes, such as glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase, Micronase), glipizide (Glucotrol), glimepiride (Amaryl), acarbose (Precose), nateglinide (Starlix), metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and insulin. Glucosamine hydrochloride may also decrease the effectiveness of some drugs used in the treatment of cancer, such as etoposide (VP16, VePesdfdid) and doxorubicin (Adriamycin).
Between 1000 - 2000 mg. up to date
Chondroitin sulfate or chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan consisting of a chain of alternating N-acetylgalactosamine and N-glucuronic acid disaccharides. Chondroitin sulfate is usually associated with proteins, constituting high molecular weight aggregates called proteoglycans. A chondroitin chain can be made up of more than 100 individual sugars, each of which can be sulphated in positions and in different numbers.
It is an important component of most vertebrate and invertebrate tissues and is mainly present in those that have a large extracellular matrix, such as those that form the connective tissues of the body, cartilage, skin, blood vessels, as well as ligaments and tendons. Chondroitin sulfate gives cartilage its mechanical and elastic properties, and gives this tissue much of its resistance to compression.
The therapeutic action of chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis patients is due to its beneficial effect on the metabolic imbalance that occurs in osteoarthritis cartilage. The mechanisms of action of chondroitin sulfate are described for the three levels of the joint: cartilage, synovial membrane ,   and  subchondral bone .
Chondroitin sulfate is the major component of the extracellular matrix of most vertebrate tissues and represents an important element in maintaining the structural integrity of tissues with a large extracellular matrix (connective tissues of the body, cartilage, skin, blood vessels as well as the ligaments and tendons). This function is typical of high molecular weight proteoglycans such as aggrecan, versican, brevican, and neurocan.
As part of aggrecan, chondroitin sulfate is the major component of cartilage. The level of aggregation and the strong loads of the sulfate groups of chondroitin sulfate give the property of water retention to these proteoglycans, which provides cartilage with its characteristic of resistance to compression.
In degenerative joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis, deterioration and loss of joint cartilage occurs. A key phase in the osteoarthritis degenerative process is the loss of proteoglycan (formed by chondroitin sulfate) from cartilage and exposure of its collagen network to mechanical malfunction.
Chondroitin is considered a Symptomatic Slow Acting Drug for Osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) in more than 22 European countries, while in the United States it is regulated by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) as a nutritional supplement. Likewise, chondroitin sulfate is also used in veterinary medicine to treat joint pathologies in animals such as dogs, cats, and horses.
As a drug, chondroitin sulfate belongs to the group M01AX: Other anti-inflammatories and antirheumatics by the World Health Organization that develops an international classification system in which all drugs are subdivided into categories according to the organ or apparatus on which they act and according to its chemical, pharmacological and therapeutic properties.
Chondroitin sulfate is extracted mainly from bovine, porcine or marine cartilage. The extraction method includes proteolytic treatment followed by specific separation and purification. The chondroitin sulfate used in most studies is extracted from bovine trachea (95% purity), being the same as that used in clinical trials, and therefore whose efficacy and safety are better known at the clinical level.
Between 400 - 1200 mg. per day.
The clinical indication for chondroitin sulfate is the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis. Chondroitin sulfate comes in 800 mg / day (2 x 400 mg capsules), preferably in one dose (2 capsules at a time) and is taken for at least 3 months. However, in patients with significant inflammatory symptoms, it is indicated to start with a dose of 1200 mg / day (3 x 400 mg capsules daily in a single dose or in two doses) during the first 4 or 6 weeks to continue with 800 mg / day until completing the administration period of at least 3 months.
No serious adverse effects or overdose of this product have been identified in any clinical study with chondroitin sulfate. It is very important for health.
MSM (Methyl Sulfonyl Methane)     
It helps the regeneration of connective tissue. It prevents arthritis and rheumatism. Avoid inflammation and pain in the joints. Avoid the development of allergies. Improves the appearance of the skin, nails and hair. It improves the immune system. Avoid acne and forgetfulness. It improves the production of non-essential amino acids and hormones such as insulin.
Methyl Sulfonyl Methane is among the latest discoveries in the health field. The base of this product is organic Sulfur.
Sulfur is an indispensable element for human life, its deficiency causes various disorders in our organism (especially to people of adulthood due to the decline of all its organic functions) such as:
Loss of collagen and connective tissue. Arthritis and rheumatism. Inflammation and pain in the joints. Increased sensitivity to pain. Allergy development. Nails and brittle hair. Decreased immune system. Acne and forgetfulness. It lowers the production of some substances that the body produces such as non-essential amino acids and hormones such as insulin.
MSM originates in the ocean and is the primary source of bioavailable Sulfur, which is lost from our food, through processing, cooking, dehydration, or preservation. MSM is a nutrient that can be consumed daily through fish, eggs, cabbage, broccoli, garlic; etc. However, the amount of sulfur obtained by this means is very small and does not cover the daily requirements of our body.
It is necessary to maintain healthy connective tissues at the same time as a correct functioning of the immune system. Because bio-nutritional sulfur plays an important role in these and other healthy body functions, supplemental MSM has been seen to improve many health problems.
MSM increases the permeability in the cell wall, allowing water and nutrients to flow freely into the cells and at the same time allow waste and toxins to flow out properly. The building walls of the body are amino acids, they are all linked by these sulfur-based compounds and play a very important role in the production of hormones and enzymes that regulate all bodily activities.
MSM and vitamin C are used together by the body for cell production. Without MSM the new cells would not be permeable and osmosis would be prevented. Such cells lose their flexibility, such as scar tissue, wrinkles, varicose veins, hardened arteries, or damaged lung tissues from a person with emphysema.
MSM and Glucosamine Sulfate when used together produces great benefits for people suffering from inflammatory processes and deformations such as arthritis and osteoarthritis, as it provides them with the sulfur necessary for the regeneration of connective tissue and collagen that facilitate mobility. and normal functioning of the joints, and Glucosamine, which is a highly recommended substance to reduce discomfort and accelerate the regeneration of damaged tissues and cartilage.
Between 200-500 mg. daily
Shark cartilage
In complementary and alternative medicine, shark cartilage. It is known as a food product used as biological therapy, that is, based on biological substrates found in nature, which are attributed properties to regenerate the joints. It is rich in glucosamine, a substance that stimulates the synthesis of proteoglycans, typical of joint surfaces. However, its content is unremarkable with respect to any other animal cartilage.
Its main function is to improve joints, in addition to
benefits at the articular level, favors mobility and consequently reduces the
pain and inflammation.
It participates in the immune system, has an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.
Very useful for athletes due to its action on tendinitis. It improves the symptoms of arthritis.
Shark cartilage is a supplement to diets, especially for athletes, who use it to avoid wear and tear on joints due to excessive exercise. It is almost always accompanied by minerals and amino acids to regenerate the cartilage of the damaged joint. Supposedly, in the medium or long term it can calm the pain and discomfort associated with diseases such as arthritis or arthrosis.
Shark cartilage is a natural product that is normally marketed in herbalists. The successful production and sale of shark cartilage, along with other products on the functional food market, is due to a response to the increased demand by consumers to ingest high doses of these components to which properties have been attributed. "healthy". Its usefulness is not greater than any other cartilage or glucosamine-based product, so being extracted from sharks has more to do with marketing than with effectiveness. 
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