The four Gospels teach...a Kingdom message sown in Israel
The sowing of the message of the Kingdom of Heaven cannot be the same message Paul preached because it was given under the dispensation of the Law. It was a message given exclusively to the people of Israel. It was a message given before the death of a testator, under the Old Covenant and under the Law. The following verses all indicate that Christ was born, lived, and started His ministry under the Law of Moses.
Born under Law...Gal 4:4...God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law
Circumcised under Law...Luke 2:21-24...And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child, his name was called JESUS, which was so named of the angel before he was conceived in the womb. And when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they brought him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord; (As it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord) And to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons.
Appeared in the Temple...Luke 2:42-52...And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem after the custom of the feast. And when they had fulfilled the days, as they returned, the child Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem; and Joseph and his mother knew not of it. But they, supposing him to have been in the company, went a day's journey; and they sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance. And when they found him not, they turned back again to Jerusalem, seeking him. And it came to pass, that after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions. And all that heard him were astonished at his understanding and answers. And when they saw him, they were amazed: and his mother said unto him, Son, why hast thou thus dealt with us? behold, thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing. And he said unto them, How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be about my Father's business? And they understood not the saying which he spake unto them. And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them: but his mother kept all these sayings in her heart. And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man.
Ministry started under the Law at a lawful age...Num 4:23...From thirty years old and upward until fifty years old shalt thou number them; all that enter in to perform the service, to do the work in the tabernacle of the congregation
Christ taught the Law. He told the rich ruler that if he would enter into eternal life, he must keep the commandments.
Matt 19:16-17...And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.
He told the lepers that were cleansed to offer the sacrifices Moses had commanded.
Luke 5:14...And he charged him to tell no man: but go, and shew thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing, according as Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.
Luke 17:13-14...And they lifted up their voices, and said, Jesus, Master, have mercy on us. And when he saw them, he said unto them, Go shew yourselves unto the priests. And it came to pass, that, as they went, they were cleansed.
The teachings of Christ during His earthly ministry were not Christianity but Judaism.
Matt 15:24...I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel
John 1:11...He came unto his own, and his own received him not.
Jesus preached the message of the Kingdom of Heaven. John the Baptist preached the message of the Kingdom of Heaven. Jesus sent His disciples to preach the message of the Kingdom of Heaven, saying,
Matt 10:5-8...Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand. Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils: freely ye have received, freely give.
The record is clear in this matter; Jesus did not preach a single sermon to the Gentile world. His earthly ministry was to the Hebrew nation only. His message was Judaism, not Christianity. If this message had been received, two Kingdoms would have been restored to Israel...the spiritual Kingdom and the visible Kingdom.
1. The Spiritual Kingdom...the Kingdom of God
2. The visible Kingdom...the Kingdom of Heaven
The message dealing with sowing is the message of the earthly reign of Christ and was preached only to the Hebrew nation. If His disciples had preached the message of sowing and reaping recorded in Matthew 13 to the Gentiles, they would have been openly defying Jesus' instructions in Matthew 10:5-8.
All the teachings of Christ concerning the Kingdom of Heaven prove if Israel had received Christ as Messiah, they would have received the divine nature, the Kingdom of God, and Christ would have begun to reign on the earthly throne of His father David. They would have had both Kingdoms restored which were lost in the fall. All Israel would have been in the divine image and had dominion over all the earth, over the fish of the sea, the fowl of the air, and every creeping thing. Everything that moved on earth would have been subject to them.
When Christ sent the disciples out with His message, it was only to the nation of Israel and the cities of Judea. They were not to take any purse or silver or gold. They were not to wear sandals, yet they were to trod scorpions underfoot and not be harmed! They were to cast out demons and not be harmed. They had authority over all diseases and were to heal the sick. This power was given to them to prove that Jesus was the Messiah that had come to Israel to establish the Kingdom.
You make some interesting statements. However, Samaritans were "quasi" jews at best and were shunned as not true Jews by the Jews themselves. Jesus spent time in Samaria and preached to the Samaritan woman. It appears that she came to faith in the messiah. Your statement "His earthly ministry was to the Hebrew nation only" is simply not true. How do you respond to Matt 15: 23- 28. Jesus ministered to a Caananite Woman healing her daughter- restoring her from Demonic posession. He even commends her great faith as well. You should also look at Luke 7: 1-10. In this text Jesus responds to the faith of a centurion. Centurions were Romans- would not be Jewish as they were repulsed by anything Roman. Again Jesus commends this gentile's faith saying that it was greater than any he had seen in Israel. Ok so I have pulled a story from 3 of 4 gospels which show that Jesus ministered to gentiles and there is also evidence in Mark. In Mark 5 we have Jesus crossing the sea to the land of the gerasenes or gadarenes (one of the 10 cities which were predominantly Greek. They were at least Greek enough that they were farmers of pigs (a very unjewish like practice). It appears that Jesus ministers in that area in at least 1 way: a demon posessed man is delivered. So what is my point in all of this? Jesus did minister primarily to Jews- but not exclusively. What we see in 2 of these cases is that Jesus had actually created disciples amongst the Gentiles that went an proclaimed the message Jesus was carrying. Now I have to ask the question what was the heart of the message of Jesus- it was not the Law. He was the message: the full revelation of God's character and person and purpose to humanity. He was fulfillment of the "protoevangelium" in Genesis 3:15. You have spoken of dominion.. but humanity had that before the law and before sin. That dominion existed before Israel.