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Old 04-03-2016, 10:20 PM
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Arrow What can be concluded?

.

What can be concluded from the highlighted portions of these verses?


Mat. 16:19
And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

Mat. 18:18
Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

John 20:23
Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained.


JIM

.

Last edited by Lookinforacity : 04-03-2016 at 10:23 PM.
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Old 04-04-2016, 02:58 AM
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Default Re: What can be concluded?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Lookinforacity View Post
.

What can be concluded from the highlighted portions of these verses?


Mat. 16:19
And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

God, Christ or and Holy Spirit through Peter will give instruction on situations, practices and teachings and because they come from God they will be bound (to be acknowledged and adhered to) or loosened (no longer required to be practised or no longer law).

17 Jesus replied, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by flesh and blood, but by my Father in heaven.

Quote:
Mat. 18:18
Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.
God, Christ or and the Holy Spirit will work through the Church when confronting a sinner who is unwilling to repent and how that sinner is reprimanded will be considered upheld on earth and heaven because the ruling comes from heaven.

19 “Again, truly I tell you that if two of you on earth agree about anything they ask for, it will be done for them by my Father in heaven. 20 For where two or three gather in my name, there am I with them.”


Quote:
John 20:23
Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained.


JIM.
The Holy Spirit from Christ's breath, from God will guide the Apostles in forgiving or not forgiving sins.

21 Again Jesus said, “Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, I am sending you.” 22 And with that he breathed on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit.
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Old 04-04-2016, 06:58 AM
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Arrow Re: What can be concluded?

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Originally Posted by Lookinforacity View Post
What can be concluded from the highlighted portions of these verses?

Mat. 16:19
And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

Mat. 18:18
Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

John 20:23
Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained.

JIM

What a shame. You have the ingredients there to receive authentic Christian teaching, and don't even realize it.



Quote:
Originally Posted by CatholicCrusader View Post
Authority to Teach
By Jim Blackburn
Authority to Teach (This Rock: July-August 2006)

Quote:
When talking with other Christians, Catholics often find themselves discussing various interpretations of specific Scripture passages, many of which can be agreed upon as allowable interpretations, but many others about which the parties must remain at odds. Intelligent, sincere, non-Catholic Christians have studied the Bible and listened to enough Bible teaching to genuinely believe that their interpretations are correct and to be unconvinced of any flaw in their understanding. No two people in conversation about Scripture will see eye to eye on everything.

Has the interpretation of Scripture always been an issue? Was it a problem in the earliest days of Christianity? In fact, even during the apostolic era there was concern about misguided interpretations of Scripture. Peter wrote, "There are some things in them [Paul’s letters] hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other scriptures" (2 Pet. 3:16). He went on to warn Christians, "You therefore, beloved, knowing this beforehand, beware lest you be carried away with the error of lawless men and lose your own stability" (2 Pet. 3:17).

How were early Christians to know who was teaching the truth? Was there a way to discern who was teaching Christ’s truth and who was not? There was.

Sent by Christ

Jesus gave certain followers the authority to teach. The early Christians knew they could trust Peter’s teaching because he was one of Jesus’ apostles. The word apostle comes from the Greek word apostolos, which denotes one who is sent as a messenger. Early Christians recognized that the apostles were sent by Christ and endowed with the authority to teach in his name.

At the Last Supper, Jesus promised the apostles that the Father "will give you another Counselor, to be with you for ever . . . the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you. . . . He will guide you into all the truth" (John 14:16, 26; 16:13).

Before his ascension, Jesus instructed the apostles, "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age" (Matt. 28:19–20).


False Teachers among You

Peter taught that "no prophecy of scripture is a matter of one’s own interpretation, because no prophecy ever came by the impulse of man, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God" (2 Pet. 1:20–21) and went on to warn about those who taught without authority: "There will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them, bringing upon themselves swift destruction" (2 Pet. 2:1).

Paul instructed, "Stand firm and hold to the traditions which you were taught by us, either by word of mouth or by letter" (2 Thess. 2:15), and "If any one refuses to obey what we say in this letter, note that man, and have nothing to do with him, that he may be ashamed. Do not look on him as an enemy, but warn him as a brother" (2 Thess. 3:14–15).

The letter to the Hebrews states, "Remember your leaders, those who spoke to you the word of God; consider the outcome of their life, and imitate their faith. Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and for ever. Do not be led away by diverse and strange teachings; for it is well that the heart be strengthened by grace, not by foods, which have not benefited their adherents" (Heb. 13:7–9). It goes on, "Obey your leaders and submit to them; for they are keeping watch over your souls, as men who will have to give account. Let them do this joyfully, and not sadly, for that would be of no advantage to you" (Heb. 13:17).

The apostles had authority to teach, and they warned Christians to follow only those teachings and to beware of those without it. Scripture even provides evidence that the early Christians recognized the apostles’ authority. Paul wrote, "I commend you because you remember me in everything and maintain the traditions even as I have delivered them to you" (1 Cor. 11:2).

But what happened after the apostles were gone? To whom did the authority to teach pass? Was it open to anyone who knew Scripture or had a teaching credential or a theology degree? How were later Christians to determine who was teaching the fullness of the truth?


The Laying On of Hands


Scripture indicates that the apostles endowed bishops and elders with their special authority to teach. We see the earliest evidence of the apostles conferring authority in the account of the appointing of Judas’s replacement:
"For it is written in the book of Psalms, ‘Let his habitation become desolate, and let there be no one to live in it’; and ‘His office let another take.’ So one of the men who have accompanied us during all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning from the baptism of John until the day when he was taken up from us—one of these men must become with us a witness to his resurrection." And they put forward two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. And they prayed and said, "Lord, who knowest the hearts of all men, show which one of these two thou hast chosen to take the place in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas turned aside, to go to his own place." And they cast lots for them, and the lot fell on Matthias; and he was enrolled with the eleven apostles. (Acts 1:20–26)
In his first letter to Timothy, a bishop—in which Paul calls the Church "the pillar and bulwark of the truth" (1 Tim. 3:15)—he instructs him, "Till I come, attend to the public reading of scripture, to preaching, to teaching. Do not neglect the gift you have, which was given you by prophetic utterance when the council of elders laid their hands upon you. Practice these duties, devote yourself to them, so that all may see your progress. Take heed to yourself and to your teaching; hold to that, for by so doing you will save both yourself and your hearers" (1 Tim. 4:13–16).

It is obvious to Catholics that Paul was speaking of Timothy’s ordination, through which he received the sacrament of holy orders. The Catechism of the Catholic Church explains:
No one can give himself the mandate and the mission to proclaim the gospel. The one sent by the Lord does not speak and act on his own authority but by virtue of Christ’s authority; not as a member of the community but speaking to it in the name of Christ. No one can bestow grace on himself; it must be given and offered. This fact presupposes ministers of grace, authorized and empowered by Christ. From him, bishops and priests receive the mission and faculty ("the sacred power") to act in persona Christi Capitis; deacons receive the strength to serve the people of God in the diaconia of liturgy, word, and charity, in communion with the bishop and his presbyterate. The ministry in which Christ’s emissaries do and give by God’s grace what they cannot do and give by their own powers is called a "sacrament" by the Church’s tradition. Indeed, the ministry of the Church is conferred by a special sacrament. (CCC 875)
After this the apostles went on to appoint others: "And when they had appointed elders for them in every church, with prayer and fasting they committed them to the Lord in whom they believed" (Acts 14:23).

Paul’s writings provide early evidence that at least some of those appointed by the apostles had authority to go on and appoint still others. To Timothy he wrote, "What you have heard from me before many witnesses entrust to faithful men who will be able to teach others also" (2 Tim. 2:2). And to Titus, "This is why I left you in Crete, that you might amend what was defective, and appoint elders in every town as I directed you" (Ti. 1:5).


The Successors to the Apostles


Not all teachers are worthy of our confidence. Only the successors of the apostles, through the sacrament of holy orders, can be trusted in their teaching authority and interpretation of Scripture. The Church Fathers were mostly bishops, and every pope’s succession can be traced back to Peter. Quoting the Second Vatican Council, the Catechism speaks to the importance of apostolic authority in Catholic teaching:
"The task of giving an authentic interpretation of the Word of God, whether in its written form or in the form of Tradition, has been entrusted to the living teaching office of the Church alone. Its authority in this matter is exercised in the name of Jesus Christ." This means that the task of interpretation has been entrusted to the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter, the bishop of Rome. (CCC 85; cf. Dei Verbum 10)
How assuring it is to know that even today our teachers are successors of the apostles, with God-given authority! How much easier this makes it to let go of misguided Scripture interpretations and to embrace the truth that Jesus wanted all of us to know: the fullness of the Catholic faith.
__________________

"God in his deepest mystery is not a solitude but a family, since he has in himself fatherhood, sonship and the essence of the family which is love"
- Saint Pope John Paul II
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Old 04-04-2016, 04:04 PM
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Default Re: What can be concluded?

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Originally Posted by CatholicCrusader View Post
What a shame. You have the ingredients there to receive authentic Christian teaching, and don't even realize it.
.

I do not see an answer to the question as asked.
Sorry your answer comes up short, and is lacking in understanding of the question.


JIM

.
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Old 04-04-2016, 05:26 PM
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Default Re: What can be concluded?

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Originally Posted by CinderAsh View Post
God, Christ or and Holy Spirit through Peter will give instruction on situations, practices and teachings and because they come from God they will be bound (to be acknowledged and adhered to) or loosened (no longer required to be practised or no longer law).

17 Jesus replied, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by flesh and blood, but by my Father in heaven.

God, Christ or and the Holy Spirit will work through the Church when confronting a sinner who is unwilling to repent and how that sinner is reprimanded will be considered upheld on earth and heaven because the ruling comes from heaven.

19 “Again, truly I tell you that if two of you on earth agree about anything they ask for, it will be done for them by my Father in heaven. 20 For where two or three gather in my name, there am I with them.”


The Holy Spirit from Christ's breath, from God will guide the Apostles in forgiving or not forgiving sins.

21 Again Jesus said, “Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, I am sending you.” 22 And with that he breathed on them and said, “Receive the Holy Spirit.
.

Are there two separate accounts of the same statement by Jesus at different times, one by Matthew, and the other by John.

However, there is a difference between the two, Matthew says (Whatsoever thou shall bind) which could be just about anything, nothing specific.

While John is very specific, he says (Whose soever sins ye retain).

Are all of these verses speaking about the same subject, and is that subject the retaining of someones sin?

JIM

.
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Old 04-05-2016, 03:00 AM
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Default Re: What can be concluded?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Lookinforacity View Post
.

Are there two separate accounts of the same statement by Jesus at different times, one by Matthew, and the other by John.


JIM

.
Yes, I think so!
Matthew 18 is to the church before the crucifixion. The Jews were going to church adhering to OT customs and I expect there was much talk about Jesus with many gaining faith in Him. This is like a prelude for the things to come. Jesus is slipping into their consciences and after the resurrection and Pentecost these thoughts of what Jesus was saying are fully awakened and causes thousands of believers in a short period.
It's all part of the many things Jesus said and done that the whole world could not hold the amounts of books that could be written.

John 20 however, was specifically to the Apostles and of much higher responsibility because they would become the leaders of the Church that the believers would turn to if they couldn't resolve the sin accusations against their brothers and sisters.

It would really become a serious matter if the dispute reached the Church as exampled, to an extent, with Ananias and Saphira being confronted by Peter. Also the fear in the believers after this event reveals the higher authority the Apostles had over the believers in binding and loosening.
The believers would be more serious in their convicting of brothers and sisters and in a more loving way as the Spirit of Jesus bore more fruit within them because of what Jesus said and done before the crucifixion and the Apostles fervent testimony and transpiring events..

John 20 is to the 11 Apostles specifically after the resurrection and as I alluded to, a more authoritative and truthful commision.


Quote:
However, there is a difference between the two, Matthew says (Whatsoever thou shall bind) which could be just about anything, nothing specific.

While John is very specific, he says (Whose soever sins ye retain).

Are all of these verses speaking about the same subject, and is that subject the retaining of someones sin?
All three verses have distinct and different meanings.

Matthew 16 specifically to Peter.
Matthew 18 to the wandering sheep of Jesus's flock and John 20 specifically to the disciples to bring the other sheep into the flock and to this day the Apostolic succession continues to bring the other sheep into the flock.

I have run out of time to go over and edit, so will re evaluate this later or respond to any further discussion with you Jim.
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Old 04-07-2016, 12:32 PM
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Default Re: What can be concluded?

Quote:
Originally Posted by Lookinforacity View Post
.

What can be concluded from the highlighted portions of these verses?


Mat. 16:19
And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

Mat. 18:18
Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

John 20:23
Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained.


JIM

.
I think they are three different statements made at different times with different implications.

Taking the highlighted portions in the OP


1. and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven:
This gives Peter singly the authority to make decisions that will bind people in the Church on earth. That binding will be accepted by Jesus and those who disobey that binding will be disobeying Jesus.

2. Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven:
This gives the apostles collectively the authority to make decisions that will bind people in the Church on earth. That binding will be accepted by Jesus and those who disobey that binding will be disobeying Jesus.

Both of these apply to both doctrines and practices.

3. and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained
This gives the apostles the authority to refuse forgiveness of sins. Since Jesus gave them the authority to forgive in the first part of his sentence he gives them the authority to withhold forgiveness, presumably (for example) where they consider that there is no penitence or it is not sincere.
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Old 04-07-2016, 03:30 PM
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Default Re: What can be concluded?

Quote:
Originally Posted by winsome View Post
I think they are three different statements made at different times with different implications.

Taking the highlighted portions in the OP


1. and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven:
This gives Peter singly the authority to make decisions that will bind people in the Church on earth. That binding will be accepted by Jesus and those who disobey that binding will be disobeying Jesus.

2. Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven:
This gives the apostles collectively the authority to make decisions that will bind people in the Church on earth. That binding will be accepted by Jesus and those who disobey that binding will be disobeying Jesus.

Both of these apply to both doctrines and practices.

3. and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained
This gives the apostles the authority to refuse forgiveness of sins. Since Jesus gave them the authority to forgive in the first part of his sentence he gives them the authority to withhold forgiveness, presumably (for example) where they consider that there is no penitence or it is not sincere.
.

We are taught, there is ONE sin which will not be forgiven. (The unpardonable sin).

Mat 12:31
Wherefore I say unto you, (ALL MANNER OF SIN AND BLASPHEMY SHALL BE FORGIVEN UNTO MEN): (BUT THE BLASPHEMY AGAINST THE HOLY GHOST SHALL NOT BE FORGIVEN UNTO MEN).

We can even speak against Jesus and be forgiven.

Mat 12:32 (AND WHOSOEVER SPEAKETH A WORD AGAINST THE SON OF MAN, IT SHALL BE FORGIVEN HIM): (BUT WHOSOEVER SPEAKETH AGAINST THE HOLY GHOST, IT SHALL NOT BE FORGIVEN HIM) neither in this world, neither in the world to come.

Now you say the Apostles were given the authority to refuse forgiveness of sins.
Did they attain this authority by receiving the Holy Ghost?

What kind of sins do you suppose they retained, murder, rape, homosexuality?
What sin would be sooo bad that they would not grant forgiveness for it?
Does that practice still persist today, the Priest retaining the sin of a repentant sinner?

Isa. 1:18
Come now, and let us reason together, saith the LORD: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.

JIM

.
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Old 04-07-2016, 03:47 PM
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Arrow Re: What can be concluded?

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Originally Posted by Lookinforacity View Post
......Now you say the Apostles were given the authority to refuse forgiveness of sins.
Did they attain this authority by receiving the Holy Ghost?........
They received it directly from Christ, by His Command, when Christ breathed the Holy Spirit upon them.
Jesus told the apostles, "‘As the Father has sent me, even so I send you.’ And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, ‘Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained’" (John 20:21–23)
This is one of only two times we are told that God breathed on man, the other being in Genesis 2:7, when he made man a living soul. It emphasizes how important the establishment of the sacrament of penance is.

You would have known that if you spent more time reading the Bible and less time quoting Calvinist nutjobs.
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- Saint Pope John Paul II

Last edited by CatholicCrusader : 04-07-2016 at 03:52 PM.
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Old 04-07-2016, 03:53 PM
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Arrow Re: What can be concluded?

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They received it directly from Christ, by His Command, when Christ breathed the Holy Spirit upon them.
Jesus told the apostles, "‘As the Father has sent me, even so I send you.’ And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, ‘Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained’" (John 20:21–23)
This is one of only two times we are told that God breathed on man, the other being in Genesis 2:7, when he made man a living soul. It emphasizes how important the establishment of the sacrament of penance is.

You would have known that if you spent more time reading the Bible and less time quoting Calvinist nutjobs.

1. Why do I have to go to a priest for confession instead of going straight to God? After all, the Bible says that "there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus" (1 Tim. 2:5).

The Lord does want us to come to him when we fall into sin. He wants to bring us forgiveness so much that he gave the apostles the power to forgive sins. This power given to the apostles and their successors does not come from within them but from God. Throughout the New Testament, Jesus gave the apostles authority over unclean spirits, the authority to heal, the authority to raise people from the dead, et cetera. No Christian assumes that these powers came from the men themselves, since God is the one that has chosen to use them to manifest his power and mercy.

In the words of Paul, "All this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to himself and gave us the ministry of reconciliation" (2 Cor. 5:18). The apostles and their successors are merely ambassadors for Christ (2 Cor. 5:20), bringing his forgiveness to the world through the sacraments and the message of the gospel. If God has chosen to bring his message of forgiveness to the world by means of sinful, human ambassadors, why would he not be able to give these messengers the power to forgive and retain sins? And why would this not be a natural way for Jesus to extent his merciful presence on earth for all generations?

If Jesus has set up a way for us to draw near to him and receive his grace, why should we prefer another route? We would be like the three-year-old with his father who, in a rush to get home from the store, begins to run. "Let me pick you up," the father offers. The child says, "No, Dad. I’m fast. Just watch me." It takes them much longer to get home because the child’s pride prevents him from accepting his father’s help. Likewise, God does hear us when we ask for forgiveness, but it is dangerous and often prideful to stay away from what the saints call the "medicine box"—the confessional. Why would a person wish to overcome their sins alone when they have the God-given power of the apostles’ successors at their disposal?


2. Where is the sacrament of confession in the Bible?

As soon as Jesus rose from the dead and earned salvation for us, he brought his apostles a new gift. After speaking peace to them, he said, "As the Father has sent me, even so I send you" (John 20:21). Just as Jesus was sent by the Father to reconcile the world to God, Jesus sent the apostles to continue his mission.

Jesus then breathed on the apostles. This is a verse that is often passed over, but it has extraordinary significance because it is only the second time in all of Scripture where God breathes on anyone. The other instance was at the moment of creation, when God breathed his own life into the nostrils of Adam. This should tell us that something of great importance is taking place. Upon doing this, Jesus said, "Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained" (John 20:22–23).

Notice that Jesus is not simply commissioning the apostles to preach about God’s forgiveness. He is not saying, "Go tell everyone that when God forgives men’s sins, they’re forgiven." In using the second person plural you, Jesus is telling his apostles that by the power of the Holy Spirit he has given them the power to forgive and retain the sins of men. Having the power to forgive and to retain sins implies that the apostle knows what a person’s sins are, which in turn implies oral confession. Otherwise, how is the apostle to know what to retain or forgive?

In the same way that Jesus gave his apostles other supernatural powers (such as raising men from the dead), he gave them power to absolve sins (raising them from spiritual death). In Matthew 9, we read that Jesus forgave a paralytic and then healed him so "that you may know that the Son of man has authority on earth to forgive sins" (Matt. 9:6)

After he exercised this power as a man, the crowds glorified God for having given "such authority to men" (Matt. 9:8, emphasis added). Notice that Matthew indicates this power to forgive sins had been given to men, and not simply to a man.


3. Doesn’t confession of one’s sins imply that Christ’s work was insufficient? The Bible says that if I believe that Jesus is Lord, I’ll be saved.

The passage you referred to is Acts 16:31, which reads, "Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved." Sounds pretty simple. However, the Bible says much more about salvation and forgiveness. Jesus repeatedly affirmed that if we do not forgive others, we will not be forgiven (Matt. 6:15). When Jesus breathed on the apostles in John 20, he gave them the power to retain sins. But if one’s salvation is contingent upon nothing other than a verbal profession of faith, then there is no reason why Jesus would given any man the power to retain sins. In the midst of all of these passages what we need to be careful of is that we do not camp out on one particular Bible passage without consulting the rest of Scripture.

It is because of the work of Christ that we obtain forgiveness. All Christians can agree on that. What needs to be discussed is how that forgiveness comes to mankind. When Ananias spoke to Paul in Acts 22:16, he said, "And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized, and wash away your sins" (Acts 22:16). Later in the New Testament, the forgiveness of sins is tied to the sacrament of the anointing of the sick (James 5:13–15). Just as these Biblical practices are channels of God’s forgiving grace, the sacrament of confession does not add to or take away from the finished work of Christ. It is evidence of the finished work of Christ in our midst.


4. How can Catholics claim confession to a priest is an apostolic tradition? I heard it was invented in 1215 at the Fourth Lateran Council.

What you heard probably came from the anti-Catholic book Roman Catholicism by Loraine Boettner. This book is well known for its inaccurate history, and the reference you gave is a primary example. During the Fourth Lateran Council, the Church reminded the faithful in an official way what had already been the ancient practice of the Church—to confess mortal sins at least once a year. In no way was this the initiation of a new sacrament or even a new way to celebrate an old sacrament. If the Church did initiate the sacrament of reconciliation in 1215, why were there no cries at the time of invention? The obvious answer is no one objected because they were aware that the sacrament was over a millennium old at the time of the Council.

Consider the following early Christian writings from the first five centuries:

"Confess your sins in church, and do not go up to your prayer with an evil conscience. This is the way of life. . . . On the Lord’s Day gather together, break bread, and give thanks, after confessing your transgressions so that your sacrifice may be pure" (Didache 4:14, 14:1 [A.D. 70]).

"[Regarding confession, some] flee from this work as being an exposure of themselves, or they put it off from day to day. I presume they are more mindful of modesty than of salvation, like those who contract a disease in the more shameful parts of the body and shun making themselves known to the physicians; and thus they perish along with their own bashfulness"(Tertullian, Repentance 10:1 [A.D. 203]).

"[The bishop conducting the ordination of the new bishop shall pray:] God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ . . . pour forth now that power which comes from you, from your royal spirit, which you gave to your beloved Son, Jesus Christ, and which he bestowed upon his holy apostles . . . and grant this your servant, whom you have chosen for the episcopate, [the power] to feed your holy flock and to serve without blame as your high priest . . . and by the Spirit of the high-priesthood to have the authority to forgive sins, in accord with your command" (Hippolytus, Apostolic Tradition 3 [A.D. 215]).

"Priests have received a power which God has given neither to angels nor to archangels. It was said to them: ‘Whatsoever you shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever you shall loose, shall be loosed.’ Temporal rulers have indeed the power of binding; but they can only bind the body. Priests, in contrast, can bind with a bond which pertains to the soul itself and transcends the very heavens. Did [God] not give them all the powers of heaven? ‘Whose sins you shall forgive,’ he says, ‘they are forgiven them; whose sins you shall retain, they are retained.’ What greater power is there than this? The Father has given all judgment to the Son. And now I see the Son placing all this power in the hands of men" (John Chrysostom, The Priesthood 3:5 [A.D. 387]).
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"God in his deepest mystery is not a solitude but a family, since he has in himself fatherhood, sonship and the essence of the family which is love"
- Saint Pope John Paul II
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